Tana



This language is based on Toki Pona and Esperanto.
The essention of the language is to be able to express oneself clearly without too short words, because longer words are better recognizable, and words which have different language-origins.

Lesson 1



Vocabulary

kudur = ear
ik = eye
-ian = to use something (added to a noun, this is how verbs are built)
-esa = a thing which can be perceived
kuduresa = noise, sound
ikian = to see
ikesa = thing which is seen, object
kudurian = to hear
-o = adjective
blanko = white
kuduro = what can be heard
tana = language, tongue
tanesa = conversation, spoken word

ho- = this
hu- = that
lokua = place
ho-lokua = here
hu-lokua = there
tiemini = human
mia = I
tia = you
ia = he/she/it
mebo = more
miamebo = we
i = and
ce = which, what
zuaian = to live
zuaialokua = house
esenti = essence, soul, to be, is (used a lot!)
esentian = is, to be
ak = but, however
din = in
baka = back
igen = again
posibilit = power, possibility
posibilitesa = an action, deed, something which is done
posibilitian = to be possible, to be able to
posibilito = possible
Mia i tia din ho-lokua esentian.
Ce lokua, lokua mia esentian?
Lokua mia, ho-lokua esentian.
Miamebo din ho-lokua esentian, visont ni esentian din hu-lokua.
Ce-esent, esent tia esentian?
Esent tia esentian tiemeni.




Grammar

In order to make clear from what something is, you put the word which is concerned before the one who has it:
Tana tiemeniek = language of humanbeings
Lokua tiemeniek = place of humans
Esent mia = my being, what I am
Esent tia = your being, what you are
Udur tia = your ear


nouns

Nouns don't have special rules, they correspond both to words in Western-European languages as words in Slavic, African or Asian languages.

If a noun accompanies a verb, the order is verb - noun
esentialokua / esentianlokua = house

The plural is formed by the suffix -iek

esentialokuaiek = houses

-ian

All nouns are formed in the same way, and there are no conjugations based on personal pronoun, because a personal pronoun is always used so with just -ian we know what the sentence means. A noun is formed by putting -ian after the noun. -ian means that a noun is used, so estian means that the soul is used, in other words that something is and ikian means that the eye is used, this means to see. In this way a lot of words can be formed too:

ik = eye
ikian = to see
blanko = white
blankian = to make white
udur = ear
udurian = to hear

Ce

Ce means which and can be used for a lot of expressions:

ce-tiemeni = who, which person
ce-lokua = where, which place
ce-ikesa = what, which thing
ce-esentesa = what, which being
ce-ikesaek = which things
ce-esentesaek = which beings
ce-tiemeniek = which people

Ho and hu

Ho basically means here and hu means there or somewhere else:

ho-ikesa = this thing
hu-ikesa = that thing
ho-tiemeni = this person
hu-tiemeni = that person

-o

-o is used to form adjectives from words. So kuduro is 'which is something which can be heard'. Ikeso is 'visible'. Tanao is 'talkative', because it's something which you do with your tongue. Lokuao is something locally or local, as lokua means place. Zamano is temporarily.

All the basic words on which other words are built:

kudur = ear
ik = eye
tana = tongue
esent = soul, being
tiemen = human
skap = building, shape, built thing
lokua = place
zaman = time
zaman = past
kujn = brain, (knowledge)


Some verbs:

kujnian = to think
zamanian = to use time, to pass
lokuaian = to settle, to live in (a village)
skapian = to be in a building, to live in a house
tiemenian = to make use of other humans
tanaian = to speak, to lick

Some new nouns:

kuduresa = sound
tanaesa = taste
esentesa = experience
zamanesa = moment
kujnesa = knowledge, fact


The past tense

-ian is used for something which can be done with something, -zamna is used for the past tense:

esentzamna
tana Let's read a text in universalio:

Mia i ia kudurian din ho-lokua. (I - and - he - to hear - in - this place)
Tia ni posibilit kudurian? (you - not - possibility - to hear?)
Mia posibilitian kudurian kuduresaiek. - I can hear sounds (I - to be able to - to hear - sounds)