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There are certain important people within philosophy. Some of the most important are Nietzsche, Hegel and Descartes.

Descartes



Descartes is one of the earliest thinkers. Just after the medieval times, Descartes has introduced rationalism. Descartes was a French philosopher, and if we think of rationalism as a tradition which was especially important within Anglo-Saxon philosophy, this is extraordinary. However the philosophy of Descartes is quite different from the Anglo-Saxon philosophy, because that philosophy is based on Aristoteles.
Within Anglo-Saxon tradition there are certain important philosophers like Ludwig Wittgenstein and Bertrand Russell.

Philosophy started in the Antiquity, with Aristoteles who influenced the Anglo-Saxon tradition and Plato who mostly influenced the continental tradition, in which we can make a distinction between materialism and idealism.

Materialism dominated philosophers like Spinoza, while idealism has dominated philosophers like Hegel.